C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y

Chromatography of the XX century


3rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SEPARATIONS IN THE BIOSCIENCES

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM Analytical Forum 2004


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Chromatography of the XX century

XX century, the latest period of the history of analytical chemistry, was especially rich in innovations.
A great significance had the invention of chromatography
(M. S. Tswett, 1903) and the subsequent development
of the varieties of the chromatographic method.


The analyses of a great number of substances are based on the use of chromatographic principles of separation. On this same principle are based the separation of isotopes and therefore the creation of atomic weapon and atomic power stations.

Six Nobel prizes were won by Carrer in 1937, Kuhn in 1938, Ruzicka in 1939, Martin and Synge in 1952, Sanger in 1958 and 1980 - authors, whose achievements depended to a significant degree on the use of chromatographic analysis.

Chromatography is a science about the interactions between molecules and the passage of molecules in a system of non-miscible and moving relatively to each other phases and at the same time it is a method of separation of substances in a mixture, based on the difference in velocities of their displacement in such a system.
Chromatographic investigations and chromatographic processes come into effect by chromatographic devices. The chromatographic devices include units for forming and providing stable flows for gases and liquids, for programming the flow rate and/or pressure and for their measurement, for dosing out of micro-amounts of liquid, gas and solid substances, columns providing the possibility of separating complex mixtures into components (chromabarography), systems securing a stable temperature for the columns and their programming, detecting systems providing the possibility of highly sensitive and selective recording of the components and systems for automatic management of these devices and working out of the data.

Sphere of investigation:
1. Theory of chromatographic processes (chromabarography).
2. Main types of chromatography: gas (chromabarography), high-efficiency liquid, ion-exchange, high-efficiency thin-layer, supercritical fluid, gel-formation, capillary, electrophoresis and electromigrational methods.
3. Scientific foundations of chromatographic separation. Selectivity and efficiency. Relation of retention characteristics with the structure of molecules and with the equilibrate and kinetic characteristics of the system. Chromabarography (Hayrapetyan's Effect) is an arithmetical model (of Hayrapetyan - Aghababyan) of chromatographic analysis built on the basis of the equation of Van Deemter.
4. Structure and properties of chromatographic sorbents. Methods for regulation of their properties (chromabarography). Chromatographic methods for investigating the properties of sorbents and films of stationery phases (chromabarography).
5. Application of chromatography for the investigation of physicochemical parameters of processes and properties of substances (chromabarography).
6. Identification of trace amounts of components in complex mixtures (chromabarography).
7. Use of chromatography to control environment pollution, the quality of chemical, petrochemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical and other types of products, contamination of food products, in geological survey, toxicological investigations, diagnostics of diseases, pharmacokinetic investigations, etc. (chromabarography).
8. Preparative and industrial chemical processes (chromabarography).
9. Use of chromatographic devices in controlling and regulating industrial processes (chromabarograph).
10. Devices and equipment for conducting chromatographic processes for analytical and preparative purposes (chromabarograph).
11. Specialized chromatographic devices for automatic control and regulation of technological processes (chromabarograph).
12. Monitoring of environmental pollution, based on the use of specialized chromatographs (chromabarograph).
13. Portable chromatographic devices and their application in mobile control.
14. Metrology of chromatographic measurements (chromabarography).


In the development of chromatography, a process that goes on up to day, a definite tendency is traced. After the substantial theoretical and technological "gush" it follows to provide the equipment with additional parts allowing the enlargement of the analytical possibilities of the chromatograph. On this background it is considered in - time the development of Chromabarography - a new basic technology of chromatography.

The fact is that the analysts and scientists of the world still have no supermodern chromatographs allowing "to squeeze" the maximum possible efficiency of the chromatographic column in use.

The available technical means, the elaborated methods and modes of analysis have almost exhausted their possibilities and have drawn near to their logical completion - to the finish.

The chromatographs in use no longer satisfy the needs of the scientists, investigators. A further perfection of chromatographic analyzers, a provision with additional devices, the broadening and improvement of their out-bound consumption characteristics is required.

For this, it is necessary a fundamental change in the conception of organizing and executing the chromatographic analysis. This revolutionary qualitative leap at present can afford only the new basic perspective technology of chromatography - Chromabarography.

 


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