C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y

Legend of the birth of the term Chromabarography


3rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SEPARATIONS IN THE BIOSCIENCES

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM Analytical Forum 2004


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"If you want, that your observation was included in science, - christen it, give it a name, a nomination. Introducing your child into science, present him to the society of the scientists, and for this purpose give him a name and leave nothing without a name".
D. S. Lihachev


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Chromatography is nothing else than the mirror of analytical chemistry. What do you think, what does the analytical instrumentation-making expect in the near future?

Truly - a new technology!

XXI century puts the task for the qualitative improvement of the possibilities of the chromatographic apparatus. One of them is the new technology of Chromatography - Chromabarography.


The XX century, the latest period of the history of analytical chemistry, was especially rich in innovations. A great significance had the invention of chromatography (M. S. Tswett, 1903) and the subsequent development of its varieties.

The analyses of a great number of substances are based on the use of chromatographic principles of separation. On this same principle are based the separation of isotopes and therefore the creation of atomic weapon and atomic power stations.

Six Nobel prizes were won by Carrer in 1932, Kuhn in 1938, Ruzicka in 1939, Martin and Synge in 1952, Sanger in 1958 and 1980 - authors, whose achievements depended to a significant degree on the use of chromatographic analysis.

In the development of chromatography, a process that goes on up to day, a definite tendency is traced. After the substantial theoretical and technological "gush" it follows to provide the equipment with additional parts allowing the enlargement of the analytical possibilities of the chromatograph. On this background it is considered in-time to develop such a rich with its possibilities and effective technology a gas chromatography as Chromabarography - a new basic technology of chromatography.

What does it present itself, what does it give to the user and producer of the equipment?


After all, the heart of chromatography is the chromatographic column. The theory of gas chromatography, presented by the equation of Van Deemter,

          (1)

shows that for each chromatographic separation there exists an optimal flow rate above and below which the column efficiency is reduced.

In practice, the linear speed of the sample zone moved by the carrier gas, is changed continuously and increases as it approaches the outlet, which results in a non-effective use of a part of the column.

In this case equation (1) characterizes the optimal separation process only in that section of the chromatographic column through which the sample passes at an optional speed.

In equation (1) are constant values and is the speed of the moving zone of the sample which changes continuously in time. Thus equation (1) gets the following form:


          (2)

where is the speed of the sample at a distance from the beginning of the column and changes - increases - toward the outlet. This shows that HETP is not always optimal in all sections of the chromatographic column.

   
   

However the linear speed of the sample zone moving with the carrier-gas can be kept constant by programming the pressure gradient movement along the column in time, realizing the function: pressure - location - time by keeping constant the pressure difference p at the ends of the chromatographic column during the whole cycle of the analysis (Russia Patent "Chromatograph of A. S. Hayrapetyan").

  • For the first time in the world this basic technology was worked out and proposed by me, based on the investigation of the factors of diffusion and kinetics, and includes the meaning "bar-gradient chromatography" or Chromabarography, not included in the standard terminology for gas chromatography of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Chemistry (IUTAC).
    For the realization of the basic technology an equipment was invented and defended by a Russia patent. As a result a maximum possible efficiency (Hayrapetyan's Effect) of column is obtained at a minimum length, which at the same time is optimal as well, as in difference to the ordinary column a further increase in column length increases the analysis time.

  • These are not the only advantages of Chromabarography. On the contrary, interesting possibilities of its modification have been revealed, which envisage:

    • A combined application of the moving pressure gradient and temperature (Chromabarothermography)

    • Or the moving pressure gradient along the column in combination with temperature programming equally inflicted to the whole chromatographic column (Chromabarograph with temperature programming).

    Amongst other advantages of scientific value may be mentioned:

    • The possibility of bar-focusing on each component to solve complex analytical problems on a single column in difference of two or multistage columns applied in gas chromatography.

    • The provision of a supplementary part to any modification of a chromatographic apparatus in serial production is not related with high expenses and difficulties and attendance does not require a special knowledge.

    The percentage of improved items will be raised.

    • Due to the lack of analogous Chromabarographs on all over the world, the case of demands will be significantly full.

    • Income and turnover from the sale of the devices will be increased, mainly on account of selling the out-bound product on world market, and following the emergence of the first publications concerning this theme, they may be unpredictably high.

    • Having on hand data about industrial capacities and material, the principal premises for working out and of the Chromabarograph itself it is not difficult to count the real income.

    The analysis and estimation of conjuncture information and patent situation provide a basis to confirm that Chromabarography is the newest basic technology of XXI century with scientific and commercial value.



    P. S.

    I am sure
    the new basic technology of chromatography - Chromabarography - will be useful not only as a high efficiency method of analysis, but will also enrich it as a scientific discipline.

    AND AFTER ALL...
    Remember that perfection has no frontiers.


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